The brain stores memories of the same event twice. This conclusion came from a group of American and Japanese scientists. Before that, it was believed that memories were first short-term in nature, and then transferred to the cerebral cortex, where they became long-term. Previously, it was believed that our personal experience was remembered by different parts of the brain. Short-term memories are stored in the hippocampus, and long-term ones are stored in the cerebral cortex. The case in the 50s of the last century prompted such a conclusion of specialists. Henry Molays, suffering from epileptic seizures, underwent surgery during which the hippocampus was damaged. After the patient perfectly remembered what happened to him before the surgery, but there were no new memories. Then the experts decided that different parts of the brain are responsible for short-term and long-term memory. New studies have shown that this is not so. At the Riken-MIT Center for the Study of Neural Circuit Genetics, mice were experimented on, which people are unlikely to agree to. Scientists have studied how certain memories form as a cluster of interconnected brain cells in response to a shock. The experimental brain was exposed to light in order to gain control over the activity of individual neurons, which literally made it possible to “turn on” and “turn off” short-term and long-term memory. Further, the mice received discharges of electric current. When the subjects “turned off” short-term memory in the hippocampus using light, the animals, not remembering the danger and pain, did not recognize the source of the current. However, when the long-term memory was manually turned on, the mice remembered the shock experienced and responded appropriately to the cause of the threat, that is, the shock mark was clearly present in the prefrontal cortex. Scientists also said that long-term memory never \the hippocampus and cerebral cortex are blocked. Thus, between these two parts of the brain there is a certain relationship, and over time, the cerebral cortex takes on an increasingly important role in the storage of memories. So far, these are only studies conducted on mice. But Dr. Amy Milton, she is engaged in memory research at the University of Cambridge, admired by them and hopes that over time, accurate data on the functioning of memory mechanisms in people will be obtained. This will help to better understand the processes that occur during diseases associated with memory loss, such as dementia. So, during previous studies it was found that mice suffering from Alzheimer’s disease still form memories, but are not able to extract them from memory.